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“新加坡之父”李光耀

"Father of Singapore" Lee Kuan Yew

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“新加坡之父”李光耀2015年3月23日因病去世,享年91岁。李光耀是新加坡不折不扣的缔造者,除了经济腾飞,他还设计了政治、平台和新加坡社会的整个体系。

李光耀1923年9月出生于新加坡。李光耀的祖辈都是客家人,其祖父李云龙曾在当时的华裔百万富翁、爪哇糖王黄仲涵麾下供职。在长期与英国人的相处中,李云龙非常欣赏西方人高效的工作方式和西式生活方式。多年积累的大量财富也允许他让李光耀从小接受西方教育,这对李光耀影响至深。

李光耀从小就具有独立和坚强的性格。他先在新加坡顶尖的英校莱福仕书院就读,之后赴英国剑桥大学修读法律,1949年以优等成绩毕业,开始在英国从事律师工作。

不久之后,李光耀回到新加坡,通过在社会案件中为弱势群体发声逐渐树立威望,并在工会运动中建立了广泛的社会基础。

1955年,李光耀成为行动党三名国会议员之一。1959年,行动党在自治邦政府的大选中获胜,年仅35岁的李光耀成为当时世界上最年轻的总理。

【总理李光耀】

在他担任总理的31年间,新加坡从一个失业率高达12%,人均GDP仅有516美元的国家,仅用一代人的时间就摆脱贫困,以亚洲四小龙的姿态一跃晋升发达国家行列,堪称奇迹。如今,新加坡是全球最富裕的国家之一,人均GDP达五万美元以上,失业率长期维持在2%左右。

李光耀是个十足的实干家。人民行动党在1959年赢得大选以后,为了显示整治贪腐的决心,李光耀和行动党成员在市政厅大厦前举行群众大会,一律身穿白色衬衫和长裤,象征政府的廉洁;而为了整顿新加坡当时垃圾遍地、棚户区林立、河水腐臭的恶劣环境,人民行动党掌权后不久就展开清洁运动,号召人们打扫街道,清理海滩垃圾;为了改变妇女与男性同工不同酬的状况,李光耀在党内推出五名女候选人,并让妻子柯玉芝去电台广播,承诺制定妇女宪章,并在一年后兑现了以上诺言。

在思想上,李光耀始终保持居安思危意识。他亲历被认为战无不胜的英国皇家空军被日军击败。措手不及的经历让李光耀认识到居安思危的重要性,将其视作治国理念并被奉行至今。

在忧患理念指引下,李光耀和新加坡的掌舵者们构建了一系列政治体系:缜密严格的公务员录用体系,为政府精选人才;“居者有其屋”的组屋政策稳定了民心,使曾经是东南亚最大的贫民窟之一的新加坡实现了八成以上居民住在政府组屋的创举;“轻福利”的中央公积金制度,让国民在可以享受政府提供的保障之余,不敢轻易松懈,避免全面福利体系伤害国家竞争力……熟读历史的李光耀深知世界历史上没有长寿的城市国家,因此,他的一系列政策都是让新加坡能有维持自身发展的长期动力。

李光耀的影响力不仅覆盖新加坡700多平方公里国土,更远远走出了东南亚。在国际交往中,李光耀奉行利益优先的实用主义政策,广交朋友却不结盟。正如李光耀所说:“我们的外交政策不是建立在意识形态和任何教义之上,而是建立在确保新加坡的安全和繁荣的现实需求上。”为此,他游走在东西方之间,竭力在各大国之间寻找平衡。(中国进出口网

On March 23, 2015, "Father of Singapore" Lee Kuan Yew, died of illness at the age of 91 years old. Lee Kuan Yew is the founder of Singapore, in addition to economic growth, he also contributed to the entire system of political, cultural and society of Singapore.

Lee Kuan Yew was born in September 1923 in Singapore. Lee Kuan Yew’s ancestors are Hakka, his grandfather Li Yunlong had worked for the millionaire and sugar king Oei Tiong Ham. In the long term along with the British, Li Yunlong appreciate the efficient work and Western lifestyle of Westerners. A lot of wealth Accumulated over the years allowed him to make young Lee Kuan Yew Western-educated, which has profound impact on the Lee Kuan Yew.

In childhood Lee was independent and has strong character. He studied in the famous Singapore’s school Raffles, then went to Cambridge University to study law, in 1949, Lee graduated with honors and began working as a solicitor in England.

Soon after, Lee Kuan Yew returned to Singapore, gradually build prestige through assist the disadvantaged, and establish a broad social base in the trade unio movement.

In 1955, Lee Kuan Yew, became one of the three members of Congress Action Party. In 1959, the PAP won in the autonomous state government election, only 35-year-old Lee Kuan Yew, became the world's youngest prime minister.

In 31 years when Lee was the prime minister of Singapore, Singapore made a change from a country with 12 percent unemployment rate and GDP per capita $ 516 in the past jumping to a developed country, it gets rid of poverty only through a generation, which is a miracle. Today, Singapore is one of the richest countries in the world, per capita GDP is more than fifty thousand US dollars, the unemployment rate remains at around 2% for long term.

Lee Kuan Yew is a doer. People's Action Party won the election in 1959, in order to show the determination of corruption regulation, Lee Kuan Yew and the PAP members held a mass rally in front of the town hall building, and they wore white shirts and trousers, which is a symbol of clean and in-corrupt government; in order to rectify the garbage, shanty buildings and rancid river of Singapore, the people's Action Party started clean-up campaign, called on people to sweep the streets and clean up beach trash; in order to change the situation of the unequal situation of women, Lee Kuan Yew fielded five women candidates in the party, and let his wife Kwa Geok Choo to radio, committing to formulate the Women's Charter, and after one year the above promises were fulfilled.

In terms of ideology, Lee Kuan Yew remains vigilant awareness. He witnessed the invincible RAF was defeated by the Japanese army. Lee's experience made him recognize the importance of vigilant awareness, which is regarded as the governing conception and pursued so far.

Under the guidance of the concept of hardship, Lee Kuan Yew and other Singapore’s leaders constructed a series of political system: careful strict civil service recruitment system for government personnel selection; the "Home Ownership" policy stabilize the people, thus in Singapore - which was once one of the largest slums in the Southeast Asia, 80% of people there live in buildings created by HDB; "Light welfare" CPF system not only makes citizens enjoy the guarantee of the Government, but also let them not dare to relax, avoiding full welfare system’s hurting the country's competitiveness ...... familiar with history, Lee Kuan Yew know that there’s no city-state of long life in the world history. Therefore, he made a series of policies to make Singapore maintain its own development long-term momentum.

Lee Kuan Yew's influence covers not only Singapore’s territorial area of over 700 square kilometers, but the Southeast Asia and other countries. In international communications, Lee Kuan Yew insists the pragmatism policy of interest priority, to make friends but not alliances. As Lee Kuan Yew said, “our foreign policy is not based on any ideology or doctrine, but on the real needs to ensure the safety and prosperity of Singapore." Thus, he went to the eastern and western countries, trying to to find a balance between the major powers.
 

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