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商业模式创新的四种方法(二)

Four Methods of Business Model Innovation(2)

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按照IBM商业研究所和哈佛商学院克利斯坦森教授(Christensen)的观点,商业模式就是一个企业的基本经营方法(method of doing business)。它包含四部分: 用户价值定义(customer value proposition), 利润公式(profit formula), 产业定位(value chain location),核心资源和流程(key resources &processes)。

商业模式创新就是对企业以上的基本经营方法进行变革。一般而言,有四种方法:改变收入模式(revenue model innovation),改变企业模式(enterprise model),改变产业模式(industry model innovation)和改变技术模式(technology-driven innovation)。

改变企业模式就是改变一个企业在产业链的位置和充当的角色,也就是说,改变其价值定义中 “造”和“买”(make or buy)的搭配。一般而言,企业的这种变化是通过垂直整合策略(vertical integration)或出售及外包(outsourcing)来实现。如谷歌在意识到大众对信息的获得已从桌面平台向移动平台转移,自身仅作为桌面平台搜索引擎会逐渐丧失竞争力,就实施垂直整合,大手笔收购摩托罗拉手机和安卓移动平台操作系统,进入移动平台领域,从而改变了自己在产业链中的位置及商业模式。

改变产业模式是最激进的一种商业模式创新,它要求一个企业重新定义本产业,进入或创造一个新产业。如IBM通过推动智能星球计划(Smart Planet Initiative)和云计算。它重新整合资源,进入新领域并创造新产业,如商业运营外包服务(business process outsourcing)和综合商业变革服务(business transformation services)等,力求成为企业总体商务运作的大管家。亚马逊也是如此。它正在进行的商业模式创新向产业链后方延伸,为各类商业用户提供如物流和信息技术管理的商务运作支持服务(Business Infrastructure Services),并向它们开放自身的20个全球货物配发中心,并大力进入云计算领域,成为提供相关平台、软件和服务的领袖。

第四种方法是改变技术模式。正如产品创新往往是商业模式创新的最主要驱动力,技术变革也是如此。企业可以通过引进激进型技术来主导自身的商业模式创新,如当年众多企业利用互联网进行商业模式创新。当今,最具潜力的技术是云计算,它能提供诸多崭新的用户价值,从而提供企业进行商业模式创新的契机。(中国进出口网

As IBM Business Institute and Harvard Business School professor Christensen said, a company's business model is the basic method of doing business), which contains four parts: customer value proposition, profit formula, value chain location, key resources & processes.

Business model innovation is to change the basic operation methods of enterprises. In general, there are four ways: the revenue model innovation, enterprise model changing, the industry model innovation, and technology-driven innovation.

To change the enterprise model is to change the role that an enterprise plays in the industrial chain, that is, to change the match between "make" and "buy". In general, this change is achieved through vertical integration or sale and outsourcing. For example, Google realizes people obtain information from Desktop to the mobile platform, as a desktop search engine, it will gradually lose its competitive edge on the implementation of vertical integration, thus Google makes acquisition of Motorola mobile phones and mobile platform Android operating system, entering the mobile field platform, changing its position in the industrial chain and business model.

Changing industry model is the most radical business model innovation, which requires a company to redefine this industry, enter or create a new industry. For example, IBM promotes Smart Planet Initiative and cloud computing, re-integrates resources, enters new areas and creates new industries, such as business process outsourcing and business transformation services, IMB strives to become the steward of the overall enterprise business operations. It’s the same with Amazon, its ongoing business model innovation chain extends rearward, such as providing business users with Business Infrastructure Services such as logistics and information technology, opening their own 20 global cargo distribution centers, and vigorously entering cloud computing, finally becoming the leaders providing relevant platforms, software and services.

The fourth method is to change the technical mode. As product innovation is often the main driving force of business model innovation, technological change as well. Enterprises can introduce radical technologies to lead their business model innovation, likewise, many companies use the Internet for business model innovation. Today, the most promising technology is cloud computing, which provides many new user value, thus providing opportunities to make enterprise business model innovation.
 

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